Hypothesis testing have been extensively used on different discipline of science. And in this post, I will attempt on discussing the basic theory behind this, the Likelihood Ratio Test (LRT) defined below from Casella and Berger (2001), see reference 1.
Definition. The likelihood ratio test statistic for testing $H_0:\theta\in\Theta_0$ versus $H_1:\theta\in\Theta_0^c$ is
\begin{equation}
\label{eq:lrt}
\lambda(\mathbf{x})=\frac{\displaystyle\sup_{\theta\in\Theta_0}L(\theta|\mathbf{x})}{\displaystyle\sup_{\theta\in\Theta}L(\theta|\mathbf{x})}.
\end{equation}
A likelihood ratio test (LRT) is any test that has a rejection region of the form $\{\mathbf{x}:\lambda(\mathbf{x})\leq c\}$, where $c$ is any number satisfying $0\leq c \leq 1$.
The numerator of equation (\ref{eq:lrt}) gives us the supremum probability of the parameter, $\theta$, over the restricted domain (null hypothesis, $\Theta_0$) of the parameter space $\Theta$, that maximizes the joint probability of the sample, $\mathbf{…

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